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Deportation of Karachay people
At dawn on November 2, 1943, within two hours, the innocent and unsuspecting people of Karachay - 69. 267 people, of whom 53.9 percent were children, 28.1 per cent - women and only 18 percent - men - mainly the elderly and disabled veterans - at gunpoint especially attracted to this 60 thousand soldiers of the NKVD, was in a hurry Order shipped in boxcars and sent into the unknown - to the east. Settlers were allowed to take only dry rations for up to several days, and clothing. The average "boxcar" dive up to 50 people, all levels was formed in 1936. More than 20 days immigrants suffocated by crowding and poor sanitation, freezing and starving, dying of disease. At stops opens the door cattle wagons, hastily unloaded the bodies and continued on our way. Total journey time for killing 653 persons. (Central State Archive of Russian Federation, f.. 9479, op. 1, d. 137, l.. 206).
The migrants were settled in small groups in the vast territory of northern Kazakhstan to the foothills of the Pamir, more than 480 settlements. The purpose of this settlement is obvious - full assimilation of the people, its disappearance as an ethnos.
From the earliest days of settlement was equipped with a special curfew regime in which the deportees were forbidden under pain of hard labor to move from one settlement to another, or to visit relatives without special permits. They should have a monthly report to the commandant.
Feeding people in the conventional sense, especially in the beginning, it was extremely limited. People are eating roots and leaves of grasses, bagasse, frozen potatoes, cake, alfalfa, nettle, leather worn out shoes. As stated in the memorandum the Chief Commissar of Internal Affairs of the Gulag, more than 70% Karachais arrived at settlement without food.
You can understand when in the same 1944 Soviet people in the soldiers' uniforms were dying for their country in fierce battles against the Nazi invaders. One can understand, though with difficulty, a martyr's death of the Soviet people in the Nazi concentration camps. But how to understand the death of the Soviet people in the rear of his native country of starvation?
The number of deportees Karachais based exiles in 20-30 years, discharged from the front, returning from labor army, was 78. 827 people (18.068 families). According to 1959 census population was 81.000 Karachay people.
Karachai autonomous region was abolished and a part of the territory transferred to Georgia. The deportation was carried out when the vast majority of the male population was on the front in the Soviet Army. Khrushchev in his report to the Twentieth Party Congress, not without malice noted that deportation Karachais allegedly wore a military-strategic nature, in fact, carried out when the success of the Soviet Army was already a foregone conclusion.
From the report of Beria to Stalin: "... As of February 1, 1944 on the territory of the Kazakh SSR resettled 12,342 families of special settlers Karachai-with the presence of 45.500 people. Of them in South-Kazakhstan region. - 6,643 families in the amount of 25,216 pers., in Zhambyl Region. - 5,699 families - 20,285 people.
To service the special settlers organized 24 special settlement, including in South Kazakhstan region - 13 in Zhambyl - 11.
In all areas of settlement of the Kazakh and Kirgiz SSR comes in rayotdeleniya NKVD commandant and a lot of requests for tracing family members and connections with them. Only in the Zhambyl region such applications received over 2000. In some localities recorded cases of individuals and communities sympathy Karachais. "(Central State Archive of Russian Federation, f.. 5451, op. 12, d. 212, l.. 283).
Fallen to their share of trials eased only good part and help neighbors - Kazakhs, Russian, representatives of other nationalities who have not lost their humanity in spite of the hardships of war. The process of rapprochement Karachay and the Kazakh people walking on the grounds of mutual goodwill and understanding. Nor could the Kazakhs, more recently, survivors' goloschekinsky genocide "did not understand Karachais polls were evicted from their homes land.
President Nursultan Nazarbayev, speaking at a meeting of the Assembly of Peoples of Kazakhstan in January 1998 in Astana, said: "Everyone knows with what cordiality met Kazakh displaced. Bloodless collectivization and the great jute, living hand to mouth, they, nevertheless, gave shelter, heating and shared their last crust of bread thrown into the bare steppe people. They did it with dignity and totally unselfish. Those who are helped to survive and endure, is still grateful to them for their assistance. "
According to the latest population census in Kazakhstan is home to 1,500 Karachais.
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